top of page

Simulation Analysis and Modeling II Software

SAAM II is a program for COMPARTMENTAL ANALYSIS shaped by over 25 years of life science modeling with compartments. 


This information is derived from the analysis of survey results collected from 11 workshops and tutorials over 20 years, encompassing a diverse range of participants including novices, experts, regulators, academics, pharmacy or engineering students, and individuals ranging from undergraduates to postdoctoral researchers. The measure of loyalty was gauged by observing renewal rates, which exceeded 90% over a decade; Data not published.

Technical Specs Highlights [1,2]

> Written in C

> Modified Weighted Least Square

> Stiff and non-stiff solvers

> Max Likelihood based on errors of data or model

> Numerically comparable to other major programs [3]

> Validated by >25 of usage in the PK/PD, radiotracers, PBPK, QSP, nutrient modeling

> First FDA-accepted simulator was prototyped in SAAM II (aka, UVA-PD glucose-insulin simulator, 2005) 


  • Can I use SAAM II  for NLM effects modeling?

No, you can't. However, you can use SAAM II to find the best compartmental structure before the NLME. Also, SAAM II offers the "2 stages" pop analysis that can be used to guide the user before the NLME analysis. 

  • When should I use SAAM II in drug development?

SAAM II  may be best suitable for preclinical and early clinical work, where the experiment design and sampling are rigid and consistent. In case of data sparsity or structural complexity (weakening the identifiability), we included the Bayesian estimator to help the solution. 

Many users use it to design QSP or PBPK structures (>100 compartments graphically) - so hypothesis testing is perhaps where SAAM II shines!

  • Who are typical SAAM II users?

Anyone, modelers and non-modelers. It's incredibly easy to use!

  • I am from epidemiology, can I build a SIR-like modleing in SAAM II?

SIR is a compartmenatla approach where people are the transferred quantity, so yes. Again, it's very easy to make a SIR model in SAAM II and fit SIMULTANEUSLY multiple compartments (e.g., N# of infected and Recovered) for parameter extraction (like the R0). 

  • Can I do a simple non-compartmental analysis? 

No, you can't directly do an NCA with SAAM II, it's a compartmental analysis program! However, if the PK follows one or two compartmental kinetics, you can convert the compartment parameters to get the NCA parameters (see Manuals). Also, the noncompartmental module of SAAM II allows for the coding of an NCA (see manual). Long story short, it's not as easy to get your NCA as in other programs, but it's possible for typical PKs via a proper conversion. 

  • I feel that SAAM II is very good for educational purposes. Can I teach it?

Absolutely, it's highly appreciated by students. We do offer free of charge teaching licenses to nonprofit organizations. Get in touch!

Stay up to date with the latest SAAM II updates and exciting webinars! SAAM II is back and has great plans ahead. Don't miss out, follow us on our channels:


[1] Barret et al. SAAM II: Simulation, Analysis, and Modeling Software for tracer and pharmacokinetic studies, Metabolism, 1998.

[2] Perazzolo S. SAAM II: Selected Software Use Cases in Modern PK-PD Data Analysis, PAGE, 2023

[3] Heatherington et al. A pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic comparison of SAAM II and PC/WinNonlin modeling software, J Pharm Sci, 200

bottom of page